There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them are without signification. 1 Corinthians 14:10
CHINESE AMERICAN CITIZENS ALLIANCE (CACA) is a Chinese American political organization founded in 1895 in San Francisco, California to secure equal rights for Americans of Chinese ancestry. It was originally named the Native Sons of the Golden State and changed to its present name in 1904. The Chinese Times, founded in 1924, became the official newspaper of the Alliance. The Chinese American Citizens Alliance La Lodge Youth Council (YC) was formed in August 2001 and is a subsidiary of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance. It was created in response to the growing number of students seeking college entry counseling. Membership currently consists of high school students, college students, and recent college graduates residing in the West and East San Gabriel Valley.
THE STUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE (SNCC, pronounced "snick") was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It was founded to help organize the student sit-ins, to fight segregation in restaurants and other public areas. It emerged in April of 1960 from student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. Ella Baker had been the Southern Christian Leadership Conference director before helping form SNCC, but this did not mean SNCC was a branch of SCLC. Instead of being closely tied to SCLC or other groups such as the NAACP as a youth division, SNCC sought to stand on its own. Two hundred black students were present at the first meeting, including Stokely Carmichael from Howard University. He would later head SNCC's militant branch after the group split in two in the late 1960s. SNCC members were referred to as "shock troops of the revolution." The SNCC eventually aimed to make changes in individual local communities rather than on a national scale, in the case of the SCLC. It was also the most militant of all of the black civil rights organizations which led to tensions with the peaceful SCLC despite its name including "Non-Violent". The SNCC was also committed, as were the other black organizations to convincing blacks to register to vote, as each organization realized that if the blacks didn't vote the government would not be representative of them. The SNCC ran a major campaign during the early 1960s in an attempt to get blacks to register to work. SNCC played a leading role in the Freedom Rides, the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years. In the later part of the 1960s, led by fiery leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, SNCC focused on Black Power, and then fighting against the Vietnam War. In 1969, SNCC officially changed its name to the Student National Coordinating Committee to reflect the broadening of its strategies. It passed out of existence in the 1970s.
|NPR article (click)|
GREENSBORO FOUR -- civil rights activists. On Feb. 1, 1960 four black freshmen at North Carolina A&T State University, Franklin McCain, Joseph McNeil, Ezell Blair, Jr., and David Richmond, took seats at the segregated lunch counter of F. W. Woolworth's in Greensboro, N.C. They were refused service and sat peacefully until the store closed. They returned the next day, along with about 25 other students, and their requests were again denied. The Greensboro Four inspired similar sit-ins across the state and by the end of February; such protests were taking place across the South. Finally in July, Woolworth's integrated all of its stores. The four have become icons of the civil rights movement.
BLACK PANTHERS , U.S. African-American militant party, founded (1966) in Oakland, Calif., by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. Originally adopting violent revolution as the only means of achieving black liberation during the late 1970s the party gradually lost most of its influence, ceasing to be an important force within the black community. The New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, founded in Dallas, Tex., in 1989, is not related to the old group.
The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. It was active within the United States in the late 1960s into the 1970s. The group was founded on the principles of its Ten-Point Program, a document that called for "Land, Bread, Housing, Education, Clothing, Justice And Peace," as well as exemption from military service that would utilize African Americans to "fight and kill for other people of color in the world who, like Black people, are being victimized by the White racist government of America." While firmly grounded in Black Nationalism and begun as an organization that accepted African American membership exclusively, the party reconsidered itself as it grew to national prominence and became an iconic representative of the counterculture revolutions of the 1960s.
The group's political goals are often overshadowed by its confrontational and even militaristic tactics, and their suspicious regard of law enforcement agents, whom the Black Panthers perceived as a linchpin of oppression that could only be overcome by a willingness to take up armed self-defense. The Black Panther Party collapsed in the early 1970s, but party membership had actually started to decline during Huey Newton's 1968 manslaughter trial.
AMERICAN INDIAN MOVEMENT (AIM) spearheaded in 1969 was co-founded by Anishinaabe Dennis Banks established to protect the traditional ways of Indian people and to engage in legal cases protecting treaty rights of Natives. The American Indian Movement (AIM) is a Native American activist organization in the United States. AIM burst on the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. AIM was cofounded in Minneapolis, MN on July 28, 1968 by Dennis Banks, Herb Powless, Clyde Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banai, and many others in the Indian community, almost 200 in total. Russell Means was another early leader. The original mission included protecting indigenous people from police abuse, using CB radios and police scanners to get to the scenes of alleged crimes involving indigenous people before or as police arrived, for the purpose of documenting or preventing police brutality. In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating Indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States.
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